Egypt =Misr=Arab Republic of Egypt=مصر-

Egyptans history have starting in the Paleolithic era means 230 to 600 milions yers ago.

At the period the valley of the Nile was very different from what it is today.The river must have covered almost the

whole region and this fact,together with a climate which was undoubtedly much mor humid.would have resulted

in unlimited expanses of marshland stretching right up to the Delta.

Egyptian population was divided into two Upper Egypt haveing the Greeks called ( nomi )22 and Lower Egypt 20.

United the two parts of the population but the unity did not last long. its only from about 3200 B.C.that one can

start to talk about Egyptian history in any serious sense.

Unity between Upper and lower Egypt 3200 B.C

King Menes who unified the tow kingdoms.this is the beginning of the first of thirty one dynasties .which sat on the

Egyptian throne until 332B.C.,the year that Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great.

There were in fact three crowns.the White Crown of the South ,the red Crown of the north . and the double Crown ,

consisting of the two previous.which symbolised the united Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom

Which had its beginnings round about 2700 B.C isconsiderd by many Egyptian civilsation .sometimes called

Memphis Kingdom the capital being moved from Abydos to Memphis .(Memphis,the capital of the 1st nome of

Lower Egypt.the first great Pharon was ZOSER at the beginning of the third dynasty .

and the next dynasty the IVth started with SNEFRU who constructed new type of Pyramid

The Middle Kingdom

started about 2060 B.C.with the end of the XIth Dynasty. The Pharaoh MONTU-HOTEP I reestablished control over

lower Egypt with the aid of the aaaaaaaegyptian ,,middle class,,During the reigns of his successors Montu-

HotepII and Montu-Hotep III..the XIIth dynasty had its beginnings about the year 2000 B,C.its first Pharaoh was

AMON-EMHAT I .Who established the cult of AMON and kingAMON_EMHAT II and III and his successor Sesotris III.

The new kungdom

Which dates from about 1580 B.C .it was a period of military power based not on defence but on conquest.

it was al so a period of great artistic achievement and of cultural al activity in general.

THEBES was still the capital and the periests of Amon were more influential than ever.Ahmose immediate

successors ,Tutmoses I and Tutmoses II,devoted their regins mainly to military expeditions and conquest,

Queen Hatshepsut on the other hand was less war like She declared herself regent after removing her nephew

Tutmoses III and regined alone for Twenty two years .Her reign very quiet .and complex at Deir-el Bahari temple .

at the death of this aunt Tutmose III regained the throne and the name of the usurper erased from all her

monuments.his 34 year reign turned out to be ont of the most splendid periods of Egyptian history.by means of

seventeen military compains in Asia he defeated the Mitans conclusively.

The Pharaoh

Egypt was always an absolute monarchy.the king or Pharaoh was belived to a god living on earth who,after his

apparent death would return to join the other deities He bore the title ( Child of the Sun )and represented religious,

Political and military power throughout Egypt.He was assisted by a *vizir*who was the head of the executive.


Egypt has been an esentially agricultural country and it has always produced fruit.broad beans.lentils.flax and

above all cereals,

Industry and commerce

The large variety of objects found in the tombs shows that they were able work gold.silver and .copper with great

skill and that in  the cutting of precious stones they reached an incredible degree of perfection.  They also made

pottery, glass and enamel.  They did not use money but products such as  food,  arms and jewels.

From the XVIIIth dynasty  the Egyptians established close trading relations with the countries in the Euphrates and

with the eastern Mediterranean.


Egyptian doctors were certainly familiar with the therapeutic value of some plants.  On the other hand  they

did not have a very thorough knowledge of anatomy which is somewhat surprising in view of the fact that

they practised mummification.  This is because of their religious beliefs which considered the body to be sacred

Hieroglyphic writing

Right from the beginning the deciphering of the mysterious Egyptian writing fascinated everybody.  It was in fact

the Rosetta Stone which led to the deciphering of the hieroglyphs. The honour of deciphering the hieroglyphs fell

to two scholars, the englishman Thomas Young and the frenchman Francois Champollion who started work

at almost the same time and who were to see their work with great success.

Primitive Irrigation

The system of irrigation in Egypt is very basic and most of the work has to be done manually.  No one has as yet

thought of improving it in spite of asll the innovations and conquests of technology.

Egyptian Climate

Egypt could be described as a large oasis between two deserts.  Although nature has divided it into two parts

only it, theoretically can be divided into three.  There are only two seasons, the hot season which runs from April

to October and the cool season which runs from November to the end of March. 


When Gohar Al Sikkily, the Fatimid commander entered Egypt, he built the new city of Al Qahira or Cairo in

969 and from then on it became the capital of Egypt and the heart of Islam.  The historical capital is

considered the most populated african city.  It is also a great political, cultural and economic centre in the

middle east.

Mohamed Ali Mosque

This mosque is the emblem of the Cairo Governorate. The mosque is square in shape and was built in 1830

in two parts, the mosque and the courtyard.

The Egyptian Museum

This museum was opened in 1902 and contains a big library 100 exhibition rooms occupying two

floors.  In the museums garden there is a big bronze statue over the marble tomb of Auguste Mariette.  There

is also a number of statues representing other famous Egyptologists.  The most important collection

of the museum is that of Tutankhamum.


The imposing and very famous funerary complex at Giza is a great tourist attraction. Egypt at that time was

excently governed and very prosperous. Cheops compelled his subjects to labour as slaves for him. Some were

forced to drag blocks of stone from the quarries in the Arabian hills to the Nile, where they were ferried across and

taken over by others who then hauled them to the Libyan hills. The work went on in three monthy shifts, a hundred

thousand men in a shift.  It took ten years to build the track along which the blocks were hauled, a work of hardly

less magnitude than the pyramid itself . The pyramids are one of the seven wonders of the world. The people

were filled with amazement in front of this monument. These monuments are superior to everything else one 

sees in Egypt not only because of the enormous size and the great amounts which were spent on them but

because of the beauty of their consdtruction  At Giza the visitor is presented with one of the most beautiful sights

created by the hand of man.

The Sphinx

About 350 metres from Cheop's pyramid stands the great Sphinx known in Arabic as Abu el-Hol which means

"father of terror" Seventy three metres long this colossal statue represents the lion with a human head which

some believe to be a likeness of Chephren standing guard over his tomb.  The defacement of this mythical

man-animal,  which is evident today, is due in part to erosion by the wind and in part to the canon of the

Mamelukes who used it for target practise



Today is is difficult, when one arrives in Luxor to imagine how the great city of Thebes was laid out.  For centuries the capital of the Egyptian kingdom, it was famous for its wealth.  The old Egyptian capital is divided in two by a canal; the south grew up the town of Luxor, while the north, the village of Karnak developed.  In Luxor the only witness to its former splendour is the grand temple that the Egyptians call "Amon's southern harem" this is joined to the temple of Karnak by a long avenue of sphinxes with rams heads.  This road has not been completely uncovered and work is still in progress to restore it in its entireity.  The road finished at what effectively constituted the entrance of the temple of Luxor, marked by a great pylon built by Ramses II.  The outside of the temple is interesting .  The external wall has numerous doors leading into the various side chapels in which are depicted scenes from the battle against the Syrian-Hittite coalition and scenes from religous ceremonies.  The name of Luxor is derived from the Arabic "El Qousour" a translation of the latin castrum.  Today Luxor is a thriving town with a souq for the tourists as well as one for  the locals. Pleasant shops, small supermarkets and good restaurants with the majestic River Nile seperating the East of Luxor and the West.




About three kilometres from the temple at Luxor one finds the vast zone covered by the monuments at Karnak. The great temple of Amon amazes one by its sheer size .  It is the largest temple supported by huge columns and is so vast that it could easily contain the whole of Notre Dame de Paris, according to Leonard Cotterell, "would cover at least half of Manhatten"


The pleasant town of Aswan is built on the sight of a old market, and is famous for the celebrated Aswan Dam. This was constructed on the 14th May 1964. The souq is well worth a visit and to take a trip to the Elephant Island for a sight of the beautiful botanical gardens.  The amazing Temples of Esna, Edfu and Kom Ombo are for your historical enjoyment and a boat trip on the River Nile.


Abu Simble

Abu Simble, the most beautiful and imaginative construction of the greatest pharaoh in Egyptian history.  Built by the the most famous Ramses II. This temple is dedicated to Amon-Ra.  Two thousand years later this temple was removed in order to save it from the waters of the Nile to a safe area nearby.  Beside this magnificent Temple is a smaller one dedicated to Queen Nefertari the most beautiful and favoured wife of Ramses II.

Please if you are interested in any of the places mentioned for a trip or tour = contacet Mostafa on 002 0100 2098288 or contact Mr Richard on 01159194435.




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